Notes from The Business of Women: Female Enterprise and Urban Development in Northern England 1760-1830

p. 15 In Sheffield, a unique brand of radical politics was evident from before the French Revolution, whilst the Sheffield Register, under the editorship of Joseph Gales, was one of the most famous radical provincial newspapers during the 1790s.

p 19 the effect of piecemeal development in Sheffield caused one commentators to remark that “as its commerce was extended, and the population increased, streets were lengthened and new ones added in every direction, without any attention to uniformity and order.” (Joseph Hunter, 1819)

p 30 “there is evidence that a regional pattern of advertising was emerging in the late 18th century, in which nearby towns were used as points of reference and indicators of trustworthiness. Thus in Leeds and Sheffield adverts appeared for Elliot’s Family Cordial from Huddersfield, Lignum’s Healing Tincture and AntiscorbuticDrops from Manchester, ‘Moxon’s effervescent magnesian aperient’ from Hull and ‘cordial balm of gilead’ produced by Samuel Solomon of Liverpool.”p…31 Foreign influences also loomed larges … advertisements for Johnson and William’s American Soothing Syrup, Dr Brodum’s botanical syrup from Denmark, Venetian blings, French corsets and brocades, Genoa silks, Indian muslin, Persian carpets, Italian crapes, French bonnets, Tuscan hats and Oriental ointment and cordial.”

p35 “Horace Walpole described Sheffield as “one of the foulest towns in England, in the most charming situation in 1760. In 1798, a London visitor noted: “shops all shut, place extremely dull and not a person to be seen of a tolerable, decent appearance”. Morover, he complained that the town was “completely dirty and strewed with Nutshells from one end to the other, as if all the inhabitants had been eating them the whole day”. Around the same period, and after a somewhat abortive shopping trip there, Lady Caroline Stuart-Wortley wrote that “I never was in so stinking, dirty and savage a place”.

p65 In Sheffield .. after 1774, women involved in the three main sectors varied between 61 and 77 per cent [clothing,food and drink and shopkeeping] , while manufacturing – although it showed a remarkable decline in 1828 – was a consistently large area of female employment throughout the period. Here women such as the filemaker, Alice Corker, the button mould manufacturer, Ann Allcar, and the razor manufacturer, Hannah Dewsnap, were a constant feature of economic life…. The manufacture of metalwares appeared from the directory lists to be a greater employer of lower middling women in Sheffield than were the cotton trade in Manchester or woollen manufacturing in Leeds.”

p68 the majority of women active in manufacturing in all three towns were … in a large range of trades connected to the diverse requirements of consumer-orientated urban economies.. the jeweller Sarah Bowman, who ran a shop in Queen Street in Sheffield… Elizabeth Saynor of High Street Sheffield, who made umbrellas and parasols…. The pocket-book maker Ann Paul, of Silver Street in Sheffield.”

P 77 “In Sheffield, the Gale sisters, Ann and Elizabeth, advertised their bookselling and stationery business on a weekly basis during much of the 1790s and up to at least 1817. In common with many booksellers of the period, the Gales not only sold books and pamphlets but also medicines such as Spilsbury’s Antiscorbutic drops, Dr Bodrum’s nervous cordial and Dr Arnold’s pills for the treatment of venereal complaints

p107 succeeded their brother Joseph … after he had been forced to flee to America.. the sisters chose not to continue the paper, leaving their friend, James Montgomery, to set up the Sheffield Iris … which was also prosecuted and attacked by government agents.

p. 80 In 1828 … advertisement … placed by … the improbably named Madame Paris, who sold winter fashions from her ‘show room’ in Sheffield”

p87 In an advertisement announcing her intention to carry on her husband’s business in 1797, Ann Mearbeck decribed herself as ‘PLUMBER AND GLAZIER, Bank Street, SHEFFIELD’ and thanked the public for ‘the friendship of her deceased husband, JOHN”

p109 the widow of the buttonmaker Josef Cofin, a member of one of the few Jewish families in late 18th-century Sheffield, took over his business in the Park district of the town when he died some time before 1787. Another Sheffield button maker, Sarah Holy, inherited her business from her husband in 1758 and ran it until her own death ten years later … she was soon emeshed in the local Methodist community; so much so that she lent money to the Mulberry Street chapel to pay for new pillars during the 1760s. … her personal effects spoke of a comfortable, middling lifestyle, mahogany chairs, a writing desk, card table, china, silverware and Delft plates.

p111 “a Mrs Garnett, the widow of Mr Bryce Garnett … announced in the same year [1817] that she intended to continue his hairdressing business in York Street, Sheffield, with the assistance of her son.

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